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The Centaur Report for
December 18, 1946
151 1st Ave. #109
New York, NY 10003
Introduction to the Centaur Report
This interpretation of your chart focuses on Centaurs. Centaurs are asteroids with several properties in common, one of which is that they travel from deep regions of our solar system to within the orbit of Jupiter. They are similar to comets but are larger. The first Centaur discovered was Chiron in the year 1977. Chiron was first thought to be a kind of planet, but is now considered a Centaur by most astronomers.
Now you might be thinking "Oh, gosh! More teensy things to consider in my horoscope. Doesn't the chart have enough going on as it is?" Consider that astrologers use one planet, Venus, to describe the vast areas of love, art, and beauty in our lives. The asteroids add depth and detail to the astrological analysis, enabling us to see more specific issues.
When the first Centaur, Chiron, came to our attention, he was greeted with mixed feelings. Some, considering this body very difficult to define (planet, asteroid, comet?), saw it as a nuisance. Others remained sure of his importance. It would appear that those astrologers possessed a vision of better things to come.
Ultimately, Chiron emerged as a potent teacher, healer, shaman leading us all through previously unremovable wounds - whether psychological or spiritual. His urging to fully invest the spirit in the body and involve oneself in life now stands as the leading wave of soulful healing. His demonstration of the essentiality of relationship between body and spirit now stands accepted, intact and most importantly, significant in all of our personal healing efforts.
Now Chiron has five named Centaur siblings: Pholus, Nessus, Asbolus, Chariklo and Hylonome. Suggestions exists for yet another named body, Pylenor, which is awaiting astronomical nomenclature protocols. Ultimately, all the other Centaurs will receive names as well.
Each Centaur appears with a solution to a common social malady of today's complicated society and associated psychological and psychic backlash. The integration of these bodies provides us with simple, consciousness-oriented ceremonies and healing techniques to enhance our coping skills. The Centaurs restore our sensibilities - literally, our ability to use our senses, emotions and body perceptions - ranging from an instinctive nose to chill bumps - thereby increasing our humanness. In a time when the array of electronic communication and technology decreases our sentient involvement in our lives, the Centaurs appear to restore our senses and sensibilities.
The Centaur clan offers valuable attributes in our everyday life, psychological healing and spiritual growth. Consider the powerful remedies offered by these bodies:
Chiron - healing psychic wounds of rejection, restoring spirit to body
Pholus - overcoming substance abuses, restoring peacefulness of spirit, use of daily ritual
Nessus - defining need and want in money and relationships with healthy balance
Asbolus - development of and use of full intuitive faculties
Chariklo - assessing personal boundaries, both psychologically and energetically
Hylonome - healing grief and regret
As you welcome the primal gathering of Centaurs into your horoscope, you will enjoy enhanced awareness of emotion, passion for life, quest for purpose and sensorial reactions to all situations. Saddle up and ride these tiny, yet potent, bodies, for a celestial journey to self understanding, compassion and well-being. Enjoy!
Your birth chart interpretation is based on the positions of the planets at the time of your birth. For the benefit of students of astrology, these positions, along with other technical information, are listed below:
Sun 26 Sag 27 True Node 11 Gem 45
Moon 6 Sco 51 Asc. 10 Can 48
Mercury 7 Sag 48 MC 20 Pis 45
Venus 19 Sco 15 Chiron 4 Sco 54
Mars 1 Cap 09 Pholus 23 Cap 38
Jupiter 17 Sco 56 Nessus 7 Tau 21
Saturn 8 Leo 09 Asbolus 28 Gem 14
Uranus 19 Gem 29 Chariklo 19 Sco 45
Neptune 10 Lib 38 Hylonome 27 Ari 52
Pluto 13 Leo 07
Tropical Placidus Standard time observed
GMT: 23:16:00 Time Zone: 5 hours West
Lat. and Long. of birth: 39 N 09 43 84 W 27 25
Aspects and orbs:
Conjunction: 5 Deg 00 Min Trine : 4 Deg 00 Min
Opposition : 5 Deg 00 Min Sextile : 3 Deg 00 Min
Square : 4 Deg 00 Min Quincunx: 3 Deg 00 Min
For those people feeling rejected by parents and carrying that banner throughout life, relief is near. Should you be sensing wounds that simply will not leave no matter what is done, a solution stands near. And if feelings of displacement, alienation and disconnection prevail within yourself, the healer has arrived. Soon, with use of the essence of this relatively new healer, Chiron, the way clears for a stronger sense of self with spirit invested in body. This sense of self works to reestablish healthy relationships with others.
Chiron was the wounded healer, or the healer who wounds. His mode of healing works to bring up the hidden issues, overcome denial, offer penance, then go on in greatness. He was one of the immortals, with a god as a father who rejected the son. The mother disowned him because of his ugliness (half man, half horse). With no place to go, Chiron became an avid learner studying with the great ones, devouring all knowledge. Accidentally wounded at an event using ceremonial wine unceremoniously, his immortality became a liability as the healer could not heal his own wound. He persisted in life feeling pain that he, the healer, could not heal. His pain includes parental rejection, unworthiness and in today's terms, soul loss.
Chiron opted to end the eternal pain at all costs. He took a voluntary task in the underworld, coming out with the ability to ascend to the heavens as granted by Zeus (Jupiter). He represents being able to take on healing directly, clearly and intently. He symbolizes our willingness to go into the caves of consciousness and examine our nature. He grieves, then heals. This powerful healer comes before us encouraging the clearing of all things within our psyche. After this occurs the path opens for our spirits to fully fuse with our physical being.
Chiron Conjunct Moon, Orb: 1 deg. 56 min.
Emotional healing is your theme. You possess the ability to release and heal others from emotional debris they themselves cannot unlock. Then again, there you stand with your own stuff. Typically this placement feels a sense of not belonging or not being recognized by one's parents, then later in life, others. Back up the reaction truck for a moment and examine the nature of what's really happening. First, the view others hold of you probably is not what you think. That you can clarify later. Meanwhile, make some initial determinations of your need to be nurtured. Work with the idea that others have no clue what supports, nurtures or feeds you. Reach deep within yourself to see which of these needs you can feed by yourself. Which needs can be fed by teachers and mentors? Swiftly fulfill all these. With a stronger sense of support you can reach to those in the periphery of your personal life and share your heart's desires.
Chiron Square Saturn, Orb: 3 deg. 15 min.
So you just want to be loved. You and the rest of humankind. Oddly, what you perceive as indications of not being loved actually come under the heading of discipline and guidance intended to be nurturing. Your view was that your support system took a very heavy hand in your direction. But did they? Do you find yourself replicating this same discipline cycle as you seek to mobilize sagging efforts in your life? Perhaps the lack of recognition you experienced did not indicate rejection or disavowal. Now, though, it's time to seek out the silent teacher. Find the one who sits with you (and this could mean sitting with your own sense of inner authority) as you engage fully the task of attentive contemplation. This activity engages the wise part of yourself. You end up receiving your own guidance while supported by another. The specialty you now have to offer others is the ability to hear the emotional venting of others without the need to comment. This attribute might be the ultimate nugget of support.
Perhaps a sense of listlessness in life encourages one to eat too much or too little. Maybe even taking on alcohol or other substances as a substitute for contentment becomes the way one copes. The Centaur Pholus appears to remind us of what it is that actually lies beneath these physical urges to compensate or over-compensate in life.
Pholus appears at just the right time to remind people of the needs of spirit. While he signifies everything about food and drink, he also stresses the idea that all things intending to nurture our beings remain powerful ceremonies. Pholus indicates diet patterns, especially methods of cooking and even the type of diet including carnivorous or vegetarian ways. His attitude toward drink, most especially alcohol, insists that it be offered ceremoniously. The custom of toasting with wine (or whatever is the alcohol of choice) comes from Pholus. Blessing food symbolizes a Pholus thought. He represents use or abuse of all physical substances, alcohol being the most significant of his concerns.
Ultimately Pholus reminds us of the need to fill our daily lives with those things that are good - and only good - for us. He establishes awareness of necessary limits and requirements. He goes even further in that he offers the reminder (and often a stern one) that your daily routine must include your spiritual drill: saying grace, toasting, a daily meditation, smudging, ceremonial cleansing or whatever comes under his wise and watchful eye. Should things feel out of sorts, offer simpler, reverent acts every day. Watch the restlessness subside and the sense of well-being begin.
Pholus Sextile MC, Orb: 2 deg. 53 min.
Menu planning, exercise programs, coordinating wine tasting and even work as a professional nose suit you. This latter feature implies perfume tester, coffee sniffer or just knowing if the sour cream is more than naturally sour comes with your olfactory sense. But the big news of your pattern is the uncanny ability to be able to develop something ritualistically to meet the need at hand. The amazing thing is, when people do the drill you imagine, they feel better regardless of belief. Doubt yields to a strangely placed (or so you think) faith in you. Your tendency would be to loosely toss an idea at someone and let them go on their way. Your participation surely affects the procedure favorably. On your own behalf, when you imagine the ceremonies of restoring bliss in your life, try and make them physically enacted. While sniffing the world's best wine overloads your nose, it does not fill your being with the full sensation until total ingestion and assimilation occurs. So it's true with your spiritual drill as well. Just hammer it out.
It's been said that money and sex are only important when you don't have them. Whether or not this is true is up for grabs. But what we can derive from this saying is that two issues of importance to the human spirit are money and sex. In fact, under extreme circumstances, people can be observed demonstrating the best and worst of human characteristics with these issues at hand. Witness the excited glow of a lottery winner. Look hard to see the collapsed aura of a person dealing with insurmountable debt. Examine the fractured aura of a lover rejected for a younger more attractive partner. Consider the radiant glow of someone newly in love. Watch what happens as people discover that they simply cannot live without a certain thing, economic status or the love person in their life. These issues receive impeccable clarification from the Centaur Nessus.
Nessus refers to a level of desire that goes beyond need. Wanting more, coveting or even qualities of lust fall under his influence. Nessus refers to the two juicy areas of life: monetary matters and intimate relationships. He seeks out the things you unconsciously want but might not be able to articulate. He notes those things you feel you do not deserve, yet crave. First, though, he uncovers urges and desires that may not feel comfortable to your "I am a good person," belief system. But he transforms all negatives if given a chance. He works with you to ensure you enjoy the bounty of your relationship with healthy abundance. Nessus observes your financial state in life, then offers his position on what would really make you feel good in an unlimited way. Ultimately, Nessus' balance would be to have enough money not to need more and not so much that it consumes your time and thoughts.
Nessus is a powerful healer. He insists that you open yourself to the realm of sensuality in life. Smell flowers, taste food, feel the air, enjoy touch, savor success and feel everything fully. He provides the ultimate in healing issues of converting poverty to abundance. He brings about the exchange of lust, shame and guilt for healthy physical enjoyment of life, whether explored intimately with another or in one's relationship with the Creator.
Nessus Opposition Moon, Orb: 0 deg. 30 min.
Others do not intend to stand in conflict with your contentment. They do not always understand what motivates your desires. They don't need to, either. But should those you project your needs toward not understand where your desire originates, they will back off. This naturally inspires your perseverance. This added push arouses more suspicion and increased retreat. When you observe others pulling away from complying with mutually and previously agreed needs, hold up for a while. Take a moment to examine your motivation in this quest. Are you seeking to fulfill your soul's urge - and in a good way? If not, stop. If yes, proceed with gentle, but deliberate pursuit. Others probably read your asking energy as being very forceful. This works against your flow. Knowing what you want is one thing. Insisting that others participate in this emotional knowledge of yours, is another matter entirely. Do nothing by force; everything comes through cause and effect. Simply, ask and receive. Others increase in their receptivity to all your wildest desires within your soulful approach.
Nessus Quincunx Mercury, Orb: 0 deg. 27 min.
While you're absolutely convinced that your ideas on love and money are perfect, others persist in attempting to change your views. You then persist in reenforcing your ideas onto others and the stalemate strengthens. Your agenda only needs to be to get what you want. Yet, others insist that you go beyond the approved limits to get what you see as naturally yours. Feedback remains a critical part of this configuration. Without it, the urge to arbitrate falls by the wayside. The first element for both parties involved, is simply to listen. That would be your lead. You'll indicate your need. Others counter with their reaction and need. You restate your position. Another counter follows. Here you can examine what comes back to you. Can you live with any part of this? If not, you'll move on to the next thing. If you can deal with the response, given that it requires some adjustment on your part - do so. This act of good faith begins communications that ensures continued progress in these critical life concerns. Meanwhile, your need is not to constantly wrap yourself with uncomfortable compliance around the ideas and responsiveness of others. You seek to fulfill your every desire. Slowly, step by step, you get closer when your demonstrate your tractability. Also know if what you seek is not sufficiently available in this location, it's time to move elsewhere.
Nessus Square Saturn, Orb: 0 deg. 49 min.
The actions taken may or may not be consistent with the level of authority or responsibility you claim in life. Ongoing questioning occurs deep within. You ponder whether or not you took advantage of the situation. Even if you conclude you did use unfair leverage, what can you do now? You can put it behind you. You can repair some uneven fields with some psychic tractor work. You can establish an agenda of full disclosure, impeccable responsibility, fair wage and unlimited sharing in love. Knowing your agreed role helps. Agreed role refers not only to those things consciously stated, but those things subconsciously or unconsciously assumed. Should that pesky nose sniff out something other than the agreed, use this helpful perception. When you get a sense (or scent) of how things are, ask if your feelings are correct. This skill offers incredible capacities in resolving financial and intimate relationship issues with others. This allows you to assume an internally guided course of balance within the emotional and economic expenditures. Remember you have a nose for how to spend intimate and industrial incomes to stabilize satisfaction in life.
Ever have one of those moments in which you went against the flash of insight you received? Such situations become more glaring if life tosses back some sort of difficulty, like exactly the one of which you were forewarned. When you feel like leading the charge up some sort of symbolic mountain to take on a perilous task, do you ever ponder what the outcome might be?
Asbolus, another of our Centaur guides, represents the best in intuitive awareness. Asbolus reflects good counsel given and not heeded, or good advice received and not heeded. Usually the results of not heeding such input become immediately apparent. The urge to veto one of those insightful flashes falls under the visionary gaze of Asbolus. The insight just seemed to be a logical projection. There was nothing psychic about it. "What are the odds of that," Asbolus nudges again. The odds seem high at the moment. He urges absolute attentiveness to futuristic impressions. Stop while you're ahead. No need to take on challenges from an unnecessary argument or death-defying tasks, or push your personal limits. Back off, relax and contemplate.
Asbolus further represents the loss of guidance or wisdom because of alcohol. He points out how judgment, physical and otherwise, degrades when intoxicated. His alternative would suggest that when life feels all-consuming, reinvoke a ceremonial situation to clear the mind. This effort restores strong judgment that supports the spirit and reinstates the intuitive faculties to full potency. Regardless, following intuition remains his determined influence.
Asbolus Opposition Sun, Orb: 1 deg. 47 min.
"Charge" appears as the operative word in life. Know when to charge ahead. Know when the task at hand is both surmountable and of your concern. Tasks that do not concern you lie outside your charge. Simply, you get no credit for unauthorized charges. The authority in the circumstances standing before you that hold cash value in your life comes from the confident awareness of your spirit's solar energy. This energy radiates persistently and without fail. The ego flares often associated with disruptive solar activity minimize when realizing their eternal nature. These flares originate in the instability between the urge to act and the desire to be realized. The urges create a feeling of disequilibrium between body and mind. Truly, the imbalance is body and spirit. The spirit surges forward, making its presence known. This charges you up. Being charged invokes taking on the tasks at hand that bear fruit. Consider carefully the beginnings. Read the signs in the light of day. Does the initial response indicate pursuit or retreat? Is this part of your charge?
Asbolus Opposition Mars, Orb: 2 deg. 55 min.
"Action speaks louder than words," so reports the old adage. Even sharper in the reality contrast is the axiom that "action aligns with insightfully declared intention." They say pay attention to what a person fosters within themselves. Here you receive constant reinforcement for the things that ultimately end up supporting your spirit. You listening? The better question would be: you following all this? Follow with impeccability of action. You will find that intuitive sensors lose tracking with each act of non-conformity. You might ask, "What about instincts?" What about them? Are you asking about instincts that guide and benefit your inner being? Or do you mean the impulsive gravities of life seeking to pull your intentions into black holes leading who knows where? You do have the psychic skill of remote viewing. You can see other places at other times or other places at this time. Take this view finder and apply it to where you'll be if you follow this urge, say in three months (or three days). How are you feeling about yourself? Should consistency and pleasantness surround you, go for it. Otherwise, you know the drill. Don't hammer on points that don't build the castle of life you want to claim as home.
In today's world, the term "boundary" defines the receptivity we have to others or the resistance we put up to others. When encountering new people, what is your criteria for establishing connection? Does it work? If you are pushing away people you'd like to have in your life, perhaps resetting your boundaries is in order. If you're experiencing conflict with a friend, family member, co-worker, boss or your mate, perhaps redefining your boundaries would help. But where do you go for understanding these instinctive urges and reactions you're having to others? Help is at hand.
Chariklo, the sea nymph wife of the powerful healer Chiron, connects you with your greater unconscious and soul urges. She represents your awareness of both your emotional and spiritual boundaries. And in so doing, she works to improve all your relationships by clarifying what is and what is not acceptable to your spirit. Your emotional boundary would be how close you permit another person to stand near you, whether consciously interacting or not. It would also show up as your claim of your physical and emotional needs from another person. She further represents your receptivity to the emotional claims/demands of others.
The spiritual boundary carries the urge for divine kinship. Here you seek someone with common causes, inspired aspirations and shared views of the Universal - a real kindred spirit. These separate boundaries may or may not be the same dimension. And they might be different with every person you meet. Chariklo represents the qualities of compassion, tolerance and forgiveness in unlimited proportion. She questions intent and examines motivation in a gentle, curious manner. She encourages you to start with yourself. Check intent and motive. If it feels good, proceed. If it does not bring a warm sense within its midst, then make corrections.
She bears the sacred marriage between body and soul. Chariklo represents the wedding known as the acceptance of one's spirit by the body. She offers soul retrieval and recovery, bonding ceremonies and energetic healing as her clarity-producing gifts. This clarity opens the doors for shedding the light of understanding toward all people. Then, you are clear to become a vehicle of helping others understand their own boundaries by your shining example.
Chariklo Conjunct Venus, Orb: 0 deg. 30 min.
The energy of this alignment honors the pristine essence of the female gender. As a female, instinctive healing qualities pour through you like gentle rain. As a male, phenomenal respect and regard for the female spirit lives within, producing your attunement to the healing vibration. Awareness of the potent fullness of the receptive, unlimited feminine archetype prevails in either gender. Specialize in cultivation of all pearls of wisdom. Develop all creative talents with untethered abandon. Then, do the big work. Discover all your natural healing abilities. These are powerful, profound and instinctively based within ancient traditions. Dedicate your path to applying these skills. This summons your powerful connection to the Divine Feminine, thus your healing spirit. This healing energy melts icebergs of shame, guilt, remorse, regret and transgression. Your ability to move immovable relational conflict borders on remarkable. The patience, tolerance and compassion you radiate warms the planet. Your nonjudgmental methods become models of humanism unknown under present social standards. Like it or not, you become central to conflicts. Your task is simply to be what you are. Your radiance takes care of the job.
Chariklo Conjunct Jupiter, Orb: 1 deg. 49 min.
What mysteries of the times of old do you hold in your consciousness? And where in your consciousness do these mysteries live? Is that even important? It is important. You need reasons. You need to know you're not just pulling things out of wherever you're inclined to unconsciously scratch. Do you hold valid memories? Perhaps this is only your wild imagination. Then again, maybe spiritual speculation rules; the realizations might be valid. What if you have visions? Here's a simple protocol to follow. Take time to see any situation in your life in which you'd like some assistance. See a ceremonial temple. It could be a church, kiva, shanty on a bayou, igloo, cave or whatever. Enter. See the healers. Watch what they do. Now, enact this in life. It's really that easy. Part of you believes that if you can fold your consciousness over a concept, the effects in the denseness of mundane life can follow. This is true. Using the ceremonial track, whether imagined or not, produces real life results. So then, we're to guess at this point that none of it matters. All that matters is that you knowingly use this ceremony for yourself. While you're at it, why not render others a compassionate, ceremonial hand?
Chariklo Quincunx Uranus, Orb: 0 deg. 16 min.
You can go about it a couple of different ways. You can use the principle of command by negation: "do so, until you're told not do so." This can be done either noisily, which brings negation sooner, or quietly. You can intentionally transgress to see if you can get away with it. Or you can pursue the things you must with diligence because your spirit's at stake. You can also conduct your personal experiments of energy, either for the greater good or your own amusement. Energy experiments consist of focusing the electrical intention of your spirit directly at the forehead of someone you think ought to be coming through for you. But there is a level of intent and responsibility for your beamed intent. Energy is energy and energy is physical. Beaming energy at another person is an act in the primal, physical world. No need acting surprised or "Who, me?" when challenged by response to your energetic transmission. The optimal use of this pattern is to encourage people (mostly yourself) to lead with an energy that clearly defines the desired outcome. This direction prevents misdirection and creates balance within your energy field. Your energy speaks clearly of your intent. Should this feel askew, go back to the urge of the soul and beam it through your being into the airwaves. No need to break any protocol - especially that of your spirit's need to sing.
Chariklo Trine MC, Orb: 1 deg. 00 min.
Ease does seem to come to professional plans when you put your heart and soul into it. The purity of your energy and the clarity of your intention brilliantly beams from everything you do. Commit to the greatest destiny-driven career you can imagine. Be wonderfully grandiose in your speculations. Imagination opens the channels for energy to follow. Energy builds and makes real stuff in life. That's your teaching. The energy between people creates the "stuff" of their interaction. You show them how this simple fact works. With that revelation, energetic changes occur by shifts in the energy that people emanate. Your principle messages also note that if you want joy and peacefulness in life, then being tolerant and compassionate toward others helps immensely. Here's another powerful lesson: do not be concerned about those things that do not concern you. Such concerns dissipate your energy and devour your spirit. One last thing: prematurity might be an indication of immaturity or impatience. Save your declarations of professional intent in life until all necessary background energy fully aligns with them.
When losses of life, failures or those things not attained override one's sense of hope, the Centaur Hylonome receives a request for appearance. Should the fiscal losses and relational despair feel overwhelming, call out to this feminine Centaur. When distraught over the ending of a relationship in which you had no control over the outcome, use Hylonome.
Hylonome lost her mate during a Centaurian debacle. She was so distressed and unwilling to cope after his death, that she thrust herself on the spear that killed him. So, she appears in our lives not as an indication of hopelessness, but to provide the will to overcome the mountain of insurmountable grief. She appears to provide hope in the darkness of loss. She encourages grief, howsoever painful. She promises that if you let yourself feel the scary feelings of personal, emotionally thick endings, that you will, in time, feel relief.
Whether consciously or not, persons with strong Hylonome aspects function as grief counselors. They offer hope and encouragement to all downtrodden sorts. Of course, to be able to render such precise care, they first must have shed the negativity of all losses perceived in their own life first. These people encourage rebuilding of self-esteem, repair diminished egos and point out a healthy spiritual self-sufficiency.
Hylonome Trine Sun, Orb: 1 deg. 25 min.
Your presence functions like the person in charge of opening the floodgates of an enormous dam. You know how to ease the valves open to nourish the valley below. Your care avoids raging, destructive rivers. The opening you create offers venting pressure to deeply felt feelings of others held locked in previously inaccessible recesses. Your energy offers a space of solace and support. The experience you carry in your aura of your own successful emotional healing speaks volumes about your understanding. In this way, you don't have to offer a single word. Should you speak, the words you choose soothe the fractures in the egos of others. Your ability extends into using yourself as an example of reason. Relate those previous experiences of despair and desperation where you pushed yourself to triumph. Your theme speaks loudly, "Life goes on, you might as well get on board." Your encouragement, whether to yourself or others, rekindles the flickering flames of the spirit into full flame again. Your demeanor speaks of poetic justice, provided one agrees to take the quill of feelings in hand.
Hylonome Trine Mars, Orb: 3 deg. 16 min.
You know, better than most, the flow of the energy of feelings in the body. With a martial arts precision, you effortlessly note which feelings go where. Then later experiencing a blast of feeling, simply based upon where it is, you know how to respond. Clarity and consciousness go with your every reaction. When you confront challenging feelings you have a powerful capacity for healing with ease by opening the necessary body channels for the energy to follow. You teach others these methods of release. But the greater contribution comes from showing others how to read the instinctive emotional barometer that their body unconsciously becomes. Primal awareness of sensitivity reactions allows just enough of a time window to consider the best usage of the energy. You teach ebbing and flowing when dealing with painful emotions. The tidal instructions permit constructive use of energy instead of woeful or rage-driven self-destructive surges. Gifted in silence and contemplation in the face of pain, when you return to invoking the feeling deserved by the circumstances, it can be done without negative charge.